Holding Plant

Pet CBD 101 

What is ‘CBD’?


CBD is the abbreviation of Cannabidiol and it is one of 113 active cannabinoids identified in the class of Cannabis plants. The CBD used in veterinary medicine comes from hemp, one of several types of cannabis plants.




What is ‘Hemp’?


The 2014 Farm Bill defined hemp as one of the plants within the Cannabis genre with a delta-9 tetrahydrocannabinol concentration of not more than 0.3 percent on a dry weight basis.




What is ‘Cannabis’?


It is a plant of the Cannabaceae family and contains more than eighty biologically active chemical compounds. The most commonly known compounds are delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) and cannabidiol (CBD).




What is ‘Marijuana’?


It is any part of the flower buds and leaves of the female hemp plant, whether growing or not. THC is found throughout all of the aerial parts (leaves and flowers). In order for hemp to be defined as hemp, that is contained in a product used within the United States, the THC percentage must remain under 0.3%. Hemp growers use the stalk and flowers when producing a product that is legally defined as hemp.




What is the ‘Endocannabinoid’ System?


The Endocannabinoid system is a biological system composed of endocannabinoids, which are lipid-based neurotransmitters that bind to receptors and receptor proteins that are expressed throughout the vertebrate central and peripheral nervous systems. The endocannabinoid system remains under preliminary research, but may be involved in regulating physiological and cognitive processes, including fertility, pregnancy, appetite, pain-sensation, mood, immunity and memory.




How does CBD work?


CBD interacts with the Endocannabinoid System. The endocannabinoid system is involved in a host of homeostatic and physiologic functions including those involving the nervous and immune system and tissues surrounding the circulatory system. Some experts believe in a theory known as clinical endocannabinoid deficiency (CECD). This theory suggests that low endocannabinoid levels may contribute to the development of certain conditions and the addtion of CBD will eliminate the deficiency. Clinical trials involving CBD for veterianry use have conducted at respected research institutions. To learn more about these clinical trials go to https://www.wildliferx.com/scholarly-articles




What is ‘THC’?


THC is the abbreviation of tetrahydrocannabinol which produces a psychoactive response when taken. THC is one of at least 113 cannabinoids identified in Cannabis. THC is the principal constituent of cannabis and is thought to be involved in the plant's self-defense against insects, ultraviolet light and environmental stress.




Does CBD have THC?


CBD and THC are two separate cannabinoids and one cannot contain the other. Each Cannabis plant type, such as Hemp and Marijuana, contain varying degrees of cannabinoids.




What does the term ‘Extraction’ mean?


It is the process of removing something by forcing it out. In terms of removing the oil from Cannabis plants, carbon dioxide, steam distillation, or hydrocarbon/natural solvents are the three methods that are used.




What is the definition of ‘Organic’?


In relation to farming a product can be called organic if it's certified to have grown on soil that had no prohibited substances applied for three years prior to harvest. Prohibited substances include most synthetic fertilizers and pesticides.




What is the definition of ‘GMO’?


A genetically modified organism (GMO) is any organism whose genetic material has been altered using genetic engineering techniques.




Is all CBD organic, additive-free or preservative-free?


No.




What does ‘Third Party’ testing mean?


Third party testing and certification is a quality control process where an idependent organization reviews a product to make sure it meets certain standards such a quality, accuracy and safety.




What is a ‘Certificate of Analysis’?


Often referred to as a ‘COA,’ it is an authenticated document that presents the analytical results of a specific test on a product specific batch or lot.




What does ‘Vegan’ mean?


Vegan refers to anything that does not contain a product that is directly or indirectly associated with the life of an animal.




What does ‘MCT’ oil mean?


Medium-chain triglycerides (MCT) are triglycerides with two or three fatty acids having an aliphatic tail of 6–12 carbon atoms. Pure cannabis oil is extremely potent. MCTs such as coconut oil are added to dilute the end product, making it easier to dose.




What does ‘Full Spectrum’ mean?


A product derived from the Cannabis plant, that contain trace amounts of minor cannabinoids, cannabis oil, and very low or zero amounts of THC (less than 0.3%).




What does ‘Broad Spectrum’ mean?


A product derived from the Cannabis plant, that contains moderate amounts of cannabinoids, cannabis oil, and very low or zero amounts of THC (less than 0.3%).




What does the ‘Entourage Effect’ mean?


An ‘Entourage Effect’ is also known as a synergistic effect. Synergy occurs when the interaction of two or more substances produces a combined effect, greater than the sum of their separate effects.




What does ‘Isolate’ mean?


Isolate refers to the oil derived from the Cannabis plant that does not contain cannabinoids or terpene.




What does a ‘Schedule 1’ drug category refer to?


They are substances, or chemicals defined as drugs with no currently accepted medical use and a high potential for abuse. Some examples of Schedule I drugs are: heroin, lysergic acid diethylamide (LSD), marijuana (cannabis), 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (ecstasy), methaqualone, and peyote. *Because the FDA has approved three Cannabis-derived prescription medications, the Federal Government is currently evaluating Cannabis as it does have accepted medical use.




What is the Federal Law regarding the use of Cannabis products?


The use, sale, and possession of cannabis over 0.3% THC in the United states, despite state laws, is illegal under federal law. As a Schedule I drug, under the Federal Controlled Substance Act of 1970, any medicine or supplement that has no accepted medical use and has a high potential for abuse and physical or psychological dependence is considered a Schedule I drug. Prior to December 2018, it was illegal to grow hemp in the U.S. In December 2018, the Hemp Farming Act was included in the 2018 Farm Bill and passed.




Why can’t Veterinarians discuss the use of Cannabis, when consulting with the owner of a patient?


American Veterinary Medical Association (AVMA) and Veterinary Medical Examiners (VME) restricts what Veterinarians can prescribe, dispense or recommend in terms of Cannabis products. Hemp is in the Cannabis family of plants and although Hemp is legal in all 50 states, the AVMA and VME will not allow Veterinarians to use or recommend a substance within this class of plants. Veterinarians have urged the AVME and VME to lift restrictions concerning pet CBD due to the increase of clinical trials and research in this area, as well as the increase of pet owners seeking guidance. In 2018, California’s governor signed into law Assembly Bill 2215. The bill prohibits the Veterinary Medical Board from disciplining, or denying, revoking, or suspending the license of a licensed Veterinarian solely for discussing the use of Cannabis for medicinal purposes. In 2020, the state of Michigan passed a law allowing veterinarians to consult with pet owners on using marijuana or hemp—including cannabidiol (CBD)—products for their animals. Michigan Gov. Gretchen Whitmer signed H.B. 5085 into law in December 2020. According to the Michigan Department of Agriculture and Rural Development, residents in the state can add CBD capsules or oils to their pet’s food but treats are not allowed. I used the following sources to obtain the information used in this article: USFDA.gov Merriam-Webster Dictionary Chemical and Engineering News Wikipedia Health.Harvard.edu Veterinary Medical Board Alcohol and Drug Foundation




What is CBG?


First isolated in 1964, cannabigerol (CBGA) remained unobtainable because the technology was not developed to be able to effectively extract it. CBG its updated name is an immature cannabinoid that is thought to be present on all cannabinoids and transforms into other cannabinoids as the plants matures. It is known as the ‘stem cell’ of cannabinoids and works by interrelating with the ECS – endocannabinoid system. CB1 and CB2 receptors which control neuro-hormones which are can affect your mood, appetite, pain response and is affected by CBG. CBG increases energy and it is recommended to not dose it prior to sleep. It appears to have anti-inflammatory effects and recent studies have shown that people who suffer from inflammatory bowel disease are improved when using CBG as a treatment. Along with the other beneficial effects, it has increased cell growth in bones and within the laboratory setting, is may have antimicrobial effects as it has eliminated MRSA (staph infection) with greater effectiveness than potent antibiotics.




How can I decide whether a CBD or CBG product is best for my pet?


There is well documentation that CBD has been known to decrease inflammation and seizures, and increases calmness in animals. There is preliminary evidence that CBG may reduce inflammation, and provide anti-depressant, anti-bacterial and analgesic (decrease pain) properties in animals in addition to increasing appetite. If a reduction in inflammation and pain is desired, using CBD and CBG may provide the most benefit. Most pets have several concerns therefore it is suggested to choose the product that will offer the most benefit. The following list may help a pet owner decide. CBD- Arthritis Seizures Tumors Anxiety Skin inflammation and swelling CBG- Arthritis General and localized pain Bacterial infections Broken bones Decreased appetite Eye health Skin inflammation and swelling