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Learn CBD Terminology

CBD 101

CBD is the abbreviation of Cannabidiol and it is one of 113 active cannabinoids identified in the class of Cannabis plants. The CBD used in veterinary medicine comes from hemp, one of several types of cannabis plants.

The 2014 Farm Bill defined hemp as one of the plants within the Cannabis genre with a delta-9 tetrahydrocannabinol concentration of not more than 0.3 percent on a dry weight basis.

It is any part of the flower buds and leaves of the female hemp plant, whether growing or not. THC is found throughout all of the aerial parts (leaves and flowers). In order for hemp to be defined as hemp, that is contained in a product used within the United States, the THC percentage must remain under 0.3%. Hemp growers use the stalk and flowers when producing a product that is legally defined as hemp.

It is a plant of the Cannabaceae family and contains more than eighty biologically active chemical compounds. The most commonly known compounds are delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) and cannabidiol (CBD).

CBD interacts with the Endocannabinoid System. The endocannabinoid system is involved in a host of homeostatic and physiologic functions including those involving the nervous and immune system and tissues surrounding the circulatory system. Some experts believe in a theory known as clinical endocannabinoid deficiency (CECD). This theory suggests that low endocannabinoid levels may contribute to the development of certain conditions and the addtion of CBD will eliminate the deficiency. Clinical trials involving CBD for veterianry use have conducted at respected research institutions. To learn more about these clinical trials go to https://www.wildliferx.com/cbd-medical-journal-articles/

The Endocannabinoid system is a biological system composed of endocannabinoids, which are lipid-based neurotransmitters that bind to receptors and receptor proteins that are expressed throughout the vertebrate central and peripheral nervous systems. The endocannabinoid system remains under preliminary research, but may be involved in regulating physiological and cognitive processes, including fertility, pregnancy, appetite, pain-sensation, mood, immunity and memory.
THC is the abbreviation of tetrahydrocannabinol which produces a psychoactive response when taken. THC is one of at least 113 cannabinoids identified in Cannabis. THC is the principal constituent of cannabis and is thought to be involved in the plant’s self-defense against insects, ultraviolet light and environmental stress.

First isolated in 1964, cannabigerol (CBGA) remained unobtainable because the technology was not developed to be able to effectively extract it. CBG it’s updated name is an immature cannabinoid that is thought to be present on all cannabinoids and transforms into other cannabinoids as the plants matures. It is known as the ‘stem cell’ of cannabinoids and works by interrelating with the ECS – endocannabinoid system. CB1 and CB2 receptors control neuro-hormones which affect your mood, appetite, pain response. Studies have shown that patients with inflammatory bowel disease have shown improvement after the use of CBG and that CBG eliminates MRSA (staph infection) with greater effectiveness than other potent antibiotics. Along with the other beneficial effects, it has increased cell growth in bones and within the laboratory setting, is may have antimicrobial effects as it has eliminated MRSA (staph infection) with greater effectiveness than potent antibiotics.

There is well documentation that CBD has been known to decrease inflammation and seizures, and increases calmness in animals. There is preliminary evidence that CBG may reduce inflammation, and provide anti-depressant, anti-bacterial and analgesic (decrease pain) properties in animals in addition to increasing appetite. If a reduction in inflammation and pain is desired, using CBD and CBG may provide the most benefit. Most pets have several concerns therefore it is suggested to choose the product that will offer the most benefit. The following list may help a pet owner decide.

 

CBD-

  • Arthritis
  • Seizures
  • Tumors
  • Anxiety
  • Skin inflammation and swelling
CBG-
  • Arthritis
  • General and localized pain
  • Bacterial infections
  • Broken bones
  • Decreased appetite
  • Eye health
  • Skin inflammation and swelling

It is the process of removing something by forcing it out. In terms of removing the oil from Cannabis plants, carbon dioxide, steam distillation, or hydrocarbon/natural solvents are the three methods that are used.

In relation to farming a product can be called organic if it’s certified to have grown on soil that had no prohibited substances applied for three years prior to harvest. Prohibited substances include most synthetic fertilizers and pesticides.

A genetically modified organism (GMO) is any organism whose genetic material has been altered using genetic engineering techniques.

Third party testing and certification is a quality control process where an independent organization reviews a product to make sure it meets certain standards such a quality, accuracy and safety.

Often referred to as a ‘COA,’ it is an authenticated document that presents the analytical results of a test on a product specific batch or lot.

Vegan refers to anything that does not contain a product that is directly or indirectly associated with the life of an animal.

Medium-chain triglycerides (MCT) are triglycerides with two or three fatty acids having an aliphatic tail of 6–12 carbon atoms. Pure cannabis oil is extremely potent. MCTs such as coconut oil are added to dilute the end product, making it easier to dose.

A product derived from the Cannabis plant, that contain trace amounts of minor cannabinoids, cannabis oil, and very low or zero amounts of THC (less than 0.3%).

A product derived from the Cannabis plant, that contains moderate amounts of cannabinoids, cannabis oil, and very low or zero amounts of THC (less than 0.3%).

An ‘Entourage Effect’ is also known as a synergistic effect. Synergy occurs when the interaction of two or more substances produces a combined effect, greater than the sum of their separate effects.

Isolate refers to the oil derived from the Cannabis plant that does not contain cannabinoids or terpene.

They are substances, or chemicals defined as drugs with no currently accepted medical use and a high potential for abuse. Some examples of Schedule I drugs are: heroin, lysergic acid diethylamide (LSD), marijuana (cannabis), 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (ecstasy), methaqualone, and peyote. *Because the FDA has approved three Cannabis-derived prescription medications, the Federal Government is currently evaluating Cannabis as it does have accepted medical use.

The use, sale, and possession of cannabis over 0.3% THC in the United states, despite state laws, is illegal under federal law. As a Schedule 1 drug, under the Federal Controlled Substance Act of 1970, any medicine or supplement that has no accepted medical use and has a high potential for abuse and physical or psychological dependence is considered a Schedule 1 drug. Prior to December 2018, it was illegal to grow hemp in the U.S. In December 2018, the Hemp Farming Act was passed, making farming and selling hemp products federally legal.

American Veterinary Medical Association (AVMA) and Veterinary Medical Examiners (VME) restricts what Veterinarians can prescribe, dispense or recommend in terms of Cannabis products. Hemp is in the Cannabis family of plants and although Hemp is legal in all 50 states, the AVMA and VME will not allow Veterinarians to use or recommend a substance within this class of plants. Veterinarians have urged the AVME and VME to lift restrictions concerning pet CBD due to the increase of clinical trials and research in this area, as well as the increase of pet owners seeking guidance.
 
In 2018, California’s governor signed into law Assembly Bill 2215. The bill prohibits the Veterinary Medical Board from disciplining, or denying, revoking, or suspending the license of a licensed Veterinarian solely for discussing the use of Cannabis for medicinal purposes.
 
In 2020, the state of Michigan passed a law allowing veterinarians to consult with pet owners on using marijuana or hemp—including cannabidiol (CBD)—products for their animals. Michigan Gov. Gretchen Whitmer signed H.B. 5085 into law in December 2020. According to the Michigan Department of Agriculture and Rural Development, residents in the state can add CBD capsules or oils to their pet’s food but treats are not allowed.
 
References used the following sources to obtain the information used in this article:
  • USFDA.gov
  • Merriam-Webster Dictionary
  • Chemical and Engineering News
  • Wikipedia
  • Health.Harvard.edu
  • Veterinary Medical Board
  • Alcohol and Drug Foundation

CBD Terminology

As quickly as the Cannabis-derived supplement industry grows, so does the confusion of terminology. In fact, the use of supplements vs prescription vs drug depends on whether a specific product is controlled, or has submitted documents to the AVMA, FDA or DEA. Here is clarification on frequently used industry terms from the scientists and physicians within the industry. References can be found at the end. Questions or Comments? Please contact hello@wildliferx.com so we can better address your needs.

Cannabidiol – people both in-and-out of the industry use this term incorrectly. Cannabidiol (CBD) is a phytocannabinoid which is a class of naturally occurring chemicals in the Cannabaceae genus of plants and formally discovers in 1940. It is one of 113 identified cannabinoids in cannabis plants and accounts for up to 40% of the plant’s extract.

Cannabinoids are naturally occurring compounds found in the Cannabis sativa plant. Of the over 480 different compounds present in the plant, only around 66 are termed cannabinoids. Cannabidiol is a phytocannabinoid derived from Cannabis species, which is devoid of psychoactive activity, with analgesic, anti-inflammatory, antineoplastic and chemo-preventive activities. Upon administration, cannabidiol (CBD) exerts its anti-proliferative, anti-angiogenic and pro-apoptotic activity through various mechanisms, which likely do not involve signaling by cannabinoid receptor 1 (CB1), CB2, or vanilloid receptor 1. CBD stimulates endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress and inhibits AKT/mTOR signaling, thereby activating autophagy and promoting apoptosis. In addition, CBD enhances the generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS), which further enhances apoptosis. This agent also upregulates the expression of intercellular adhesion molecule 1 (ICAM-1) and tissue inhibitor of matrix metalloproteinases-1 (TIMP1) and decreases the expression of inhibitor of DNA binding 1 (ID-1). This inhibits cancer cell invasiveness and metastasis. CBD may also activate the transient receptor potential vanilloid type 2 (TRPV2), which may increase the uptake of various cytotoxic agents in cancer cells. The analgesic effect of CBD is mediated through the binding of this agent to and activation of CB1.  The most notable cannabinoid is the phytocannabinoid tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) (Delta9-THC or Delta8-THC), the primary psychoactive compound in cannabis. The cannabinoids are separated into the following subclasses: Cannabigerols (CBG) Cannabichromenes (CBC) Cannabidiol (CBD) Tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) Cannabinol (CBN) Cannabinodiol (CBDL) Other cannabinoids including cannabicyclol (CBL), cannabielsoin (CBE) and cannabitriol (CBT)

The endocannabinoid system is one of the largest receptor systems in the mammalian body and is responsible for maintaining homeostasis. The ECS is comprised of endogenous cannabinoids, cannabinoid receptors and enzymes responsible for synthesis and degradation of endocannabinoids. It contains two receptors, the CB1 receptor and the CB2 receptor. Much of the ongoing research in this area is looking at how these molecules will affect the endocannabinoid system. The endocannabinoid system has been found to be pervasive in mammalian species. It has also been described in invertebrate species as primitive as the Hydra. Insects, apparently, are devoid of this, otherwise it is an ubiquitous system that provides homeostatic balance to the nervous and immune systems, as well as many other organ systems. The endocannabinoid system (ECS) includes three parts (1) endogenous ligands, (2) G-protein coupled receptors (GPCRs), and (3) enzymes to degrade and recycle the ligands. Two endogenous molecules have been discovered as ligands in the ECS thus far. The endocannabinoids are anandamide and 2-AG. In addition, two G-coupled protein receptors (GPCR) are part of the system, with other putative GPC being considered.

This is an expansion of the ECS, which includes other receptors that endogenous or plant-based cannabinoids bond with, such as the TRPV, opioid, serotonin, and nuclear receptors.  Among these compounds, cannabidiol (CBD), cannabidivarin (CBDV), and THC propyl homologue D-tetrahydrocannabivarin (THCV) are the ones that have been most tested in clinical studies. In addition, an eCBS has been discovered that encompasses several non-eCB long-chain fatty acid amides which include: (i) the congeners of anandamide and 2-AG; the N-acyl-aminoacids;  acylated neurotransmitters such as the N-acyl-dopamines and N-acyl-serotonins; and the primary fatty acid amides. These lipid mediators often share with anandamide and 2-AG biosynthetic. This expanded eCBS, including more than 100 lipid mediators, 20 enzymes, and 20 receptors, is known as the endocannabinoidome. 

Cannabis a term of plant that is derived from the Hemp plant.  Hemp derived CBD containing less than 0.3% THC have been federally legal in the United States since 2018.   The cannabis plant has two main subspecies, Cannabis indica and Cannabis sativa, and they can be differentiated by their different physical characteristics. Indica-dominant strains are short plants with broad, dark green leaves and have higher cannabidiol content than the sativa plants in which THC content is higher. Sativa-dominant strains are usually taller and have thin leaves with a pale green color. In the plant, cannabinoids are synthesized and accumulated as cannabinoid acids, but when the herbal product is dried, stored and heated, the acids decarboxylized. In 1971, a double-blind study with 40 healthy volunteers received orally administered d-9-THC and CBD were given independently and the mixtures of the two together.  Pulse rate, time production tasks and psychological reactions were measured. D-9-THC alone increased pulse rate, disturbed time tasks and induced strong psychological reactions in the subjects, CBD alone provoked no such effects. However, CBD was efficient in blocking most of the effects of d-9-THC when both drugs were given together. Published results of this study, inspired the need for more clinical trials.

Terpenes are a set of molecules produced by many plants that add to the aroma of different fruits, flowers and plants in general. They are of a large group of volatile unsaturated hydrocarbons found in the essential oils of plants, especially conifers and citrus trees. They are based on a cyclic molecule having the formula C10H16,  comprise more than 30,000 compounds and may have calming and anti-inflammatory properties. Some terpenes include Ocimene, Pinene, Terpinene, Limonene, Caryophyllene, Lonalool and Eucalyptol. 

These are the set of molecules that are coming from plants that work on the endocannabinoid system, as opposed to endocannabinoids or endogenous ligands, which are molecules created by the body to work on the endocannabinoid system. “Cannabinoids” is often used to refer to either endogenously produced or plant produced. A phytocannabinoids as any plant-derived natural product capable of either directly interacting with cannabinoid receptors or sharing chemical similarity with cannabinoids or both.

This refers to the synergy found when a full or complete spectrum of cannabinoids and terpenes interact with ECS related enzymes. There is evidence that some cannabinoids boost the effects of other cannabinoids. Dr. Jordan Tishler MD, expert cannabis physician, and Instructor of Medicine at Harvard Medical School, states “The entourage effect has been proven but overgeneralized. There is irrefutable evidence, for example, that CBD … modulates the effects of THC at the main receptor site. The entourage effect also verifies that whole-plant cannabis products offers increased therapy but ideas that other chemicals are important for CBD to work are unsupported at present.” 

Full Spectrum describes the maximum amount of native phytochemicals retained during extraction, including THC. There are no precise regulatory definitions, but the goal is to remove extraneous lipids while retaining an identical ratio of cannabinoids, terpenes, and flavonoids from the original plant source material (which can only be verified by testing the material before and after the extraction). True full spectrum extracts are rare: most extractions lose significant terpenes and flavonoids during processing because they are much more volatile than cannabinoids. Ethanol and very low heat – the Rick Simpson oil (RSO) method or whole plant oil – or an extremely long vacuum extraction process can yield full spectrum extracts.

Broad Spectrum applies to extractions which aim to retain a large complement of phytochemicals, but without the THC. Hemp, defined as cannabis plants containing <.3% THC, forms the basis for most broad spectrum extracts. Broad spectrum can also be created by either adding terpenes, flavonoids, and minor cannabinoids to CBD isolate, or by removing THC from full spectrum extract via distillation.

Distillate takes quite the opposite approach of full spectrum, seeking to remove everything but the cannabinoid(s) of interest. After undergoing solvent extraction, the concentrated oil is run (often multiple times) through the short-path distillation process described above, to purify it. Some suppliers will advertise “full-spectrum distillate” but this is contradictory. If terpenes or other bioactives are reintroduced after distillation, the product is sometimes also called broad spectrum.

Isolate is the purest form of extracted cannabinoids, a crystalline powder with a purity of 99.9%. It is created through additional solvent processes after distillation. The additional processing steps are expensive and the end result is extreme purity of the final product.

Information used in this document was found in articles from The National Institutions of Health the US National Library of Medicine. For more information: 
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles

Information regarding Endocanabinoidome can be found at Dialogues in Clinical Neuroscience: 
https://www.dialogues-cns.org/20-2/dialogues

Broad Spectrum, Full Spectrum, Distillation and Isolate information was taken from New Frontier Data CannaScience:
https://www.newfrontierdata.com/category/cannascience

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